By using our website and ordering you accept these Terms and Conditions.
We reserve the right to revise and amend these Terms and Conditions to reflect changes in technology, changes in payment methods, changes in relevant laws and regulatory requirements and changes in our system's capabilities. If you are a subscriber, you will be notified of any changes to the Terms and Conditions. If you do not agree to the changes, you may cancel your subscription.
1. Who are we?
1.2 We offer online sales of subscription-based and one-off natural cat litter, registered in the UK.
1.3 NatusanTM is part of Mars Petcare UK (registered in England and Wales. Registration number: 6649984. Registered Office: 3d Dundee Road, Slough, Berkshire SL1 4LG, United Kingdom).
1.4 You can contact us via email@example.com
and by telephone on 020 8158 6330 (8AM-8PM, working days).
2. Relationship between you and us for the delivery of NatusanTM service
2.1 Our service is intended for the use of London residents for subscriptions and UK residents for one-off orders.
2.2 By ordering/subscribing to the service through our site, you confirm that
2.2.1 you are legally capable of entering into binding contracts;
2.2.2 you are at least 18 years old;
2.3 To order/subscribe to our service,
2.3.1 you are invited to create a user account for you and your cat(s), on which you can add and edit information relating to you and your pet(s);
2.3.2 it is your responsibility to choose a secure password for this account and to keep it safe;
2.3.3 you must ensure that the information provided is accurate and complete - including payment details and leave safe instructions;
2.3.4 you must inform us of any changes to the information provided, directly on your account - this includes your payments details as we will not be able to process your order (or any further monthly orders) if we cannot take payment from your card;
2.3.5 the contract for the subscription service will be formed when we email you confirming acceptance of your subscription.
2.4 Once you have subscribed and we have confirmed your subscription,
2.4.1 you accept all recurring monthly payments until you cancel the service;
2.4.2 you can cancel your subscription at any time directly from your user account (see details in paragraph 6. Cancellation).
3. Subscription-service and Cat litter kit
3.1 The images of the products on our website are for illustrative purposes only and the packaging of the product may vary slightly from that shown in images.
3.2 The product delivered as part of your subscription will, on delivery, conform with its written description, be of satisfactory quality, and be reasonably fit for the purposes for which it is supplied - i.e. being an indoor litter and litter tray for cats' faeces and urine collection.
3.3 The NatusanTM subscription-based service is a convenient service that consists of delivery and collection of a NatusanTM litter kit comprising:
3.3.1 for the Natusan kit subscription
184.108.40.206 a delivery bag;
220.127.116.11 a waterproof litter tray, scoop and swap tray;
18.104.22.168 two bags (7L and 10L) of biodegradable litter which, when used, we will collect [on a monthly basis], compost; and
22.214.171.124 a leaflet explaining the functioning of the service and the usage of the kit.
3.3.2 for the litter-only subscription
126.96.36.199 a delivery bag
188.8.131.52 the amount of biodegradable litter ordered (from 10L to 37L) which, when used, we will collect [on a monthly basis], compost; and
184.108.40.206 a leaflet explaining the functioning of the service and the usage of the kit.
3.4 NatusanTM provides a litter
3.4.1 made with 100% natural wood fibers;
3.4.2 allowing for high absorption;
3.4.3 easy to clean, due to tight clumping;
3.4.8 safe to use for all indoor and outdoor cats.
3.5 The NatusanTM service works as follows:
3.5.1 your kit is delivered to you on the delivery date (see details in paragraph 4. Delivery and Collection);*
3.5.2 [for full kit subscriptions] you unfold and fill the litter tray with our clumping litter as explained in the leaflet provided in the kit. Clumps & faeces should be removed and disposed of as normal;
3.5.3 after a month, you fold up the box (leaving any soiled litter & faeces inside), place the lid on top and place into the water-proof delivery bag;
3.5.4 we collect the old tray (or compostable collection bags) witu soiled litter, provided it is left in an acceptable condition (lid properly closed and placed within the water-proof delivery bag), from the delivery address before 9am on your delivery day. We will replace it with a new one at the same delivery address in the leave safe place (if you provided one when subscribing – see paragraph 4.4);
3.5.5 we then compost your litter waste and turn it into fertilizer;
220.127.116.11 We also support UK charity Trees for Cities  who are committed to plant trees, care for them;
18.104.22.168 It is really important that you ensure there is no additional debris included inside the tray or bag, otherwise we may not be able to compost your waste (see paragraph 3.8).
3.6 Concerning potential variations on the functioning of service or product,
3.6.1 we reserve the right to make minor changes to the product and/or service without notice and at our sole discretion;
3.6.2 however, if it is necessary to make any major changes to the product and/or service we will inform you first and you will either
22.214.171.124 consent to the changes; or
126.96.36.199 cancel or swap your subscription.
188.8.131.52 Please note that, after our notice, if you continue to use the service without any active behavior –consent or cancellation– we will consider your tacit agreement to the changes.
3.7 Once the litter kit is handed over to you, it is your responsibility to ensure that there is no external debris included inside the tray or bag (i.e. anything that is not cat urine, cat faeces or the litter itself). External debris could prevent the soiled litter from being turned into fertiliser.
4. Delivery and Collection for subscriptions
4.1 The service is currently only available for delivery to all London postcodes.
4.1.1 We will tell you when you apply to subscribe whether we can deliver to your address.
4.1.2 The list of available postcodes within London will increase gradually and regularly. We encourage you to check the availability in your area from time to time.
4.2 Delivery/collection dates are every other Monday. Precise time slots will not be given and delivery and collection will happen on the delivery date between 9am and 7pm. Please note that if the Monday it a bank holiday, the delivery/collection time will be the next day (Tuesday).
4.3 After the first delivery, deliveries and collections run on a regular schedule every month - i.e. on a Monday every four weeks (28 days) from your first delivery Monday.
4.3.1 We are not responsible for changes to your delivery and collection outside of our control (e.g. adverse weather conditions). However, we will inform you as soon as possible should this situation arise.
4.3.2 We reserve the right to make changes to this delivery dates at our sole discretion, you will be informed by our customer care team if so. If the new delivery dates are not suitable for you, you will be given the option to cancel the service before the change takes place.
4.4 We will use the contact details you provided to us to contact you in connection with the service.
4.4.1 Please ensure they are accurate and kept up to date.
4.4.2 The leave safe location specified shall be within the area of the delivery address and shall be accessible for the courier without need to enter or trespass on any private property. We will endeavor to follow any delivery instructions you provide but this cannot be guaranteed.
4.4.3 If no leave safe instructions are specified, the order will be left in front of your door.
4.4.4 We are not responsible for any damage or loss of the kit from the leave safe location specified by you.
4.5 Once we have delivered and collected your Natusan™ kit/bags to the address specified by you, on a chosen Monday, we are no longer responsible for the Natusan™ kit/bags. No refund will be given for damages or losses that occur after the confirmation of delivery email has been sent.
4.6 Changes to delivery address or delivery Monday can be made at least 6 days before the next delivery date and can be made either
4.6.1 on your user account; or
4.6.3 Changes to the delivery address cannot be made within the 6 days of the delivery date.
4.7 You may report damaged and / or missing kits, non-delivery and / or collection by emailing us at firstname.lastname@example.org
4.8 Concerning redelivery and/or recollection,
4.8.1 When delivery and/or collection cannot happen because
184.108.40.206 the courier could not find and/or access the address you stated when subscribing (especially for leave safe places, see paragraph 4.4.2) through no fault of the courier; and/or
220.127.116.11 someone prevented the courier from leaving/collecting the kit at the address you provided;
18.104.22.168 you did not leave your soiled litter kit at the address you provided; and/or
22.214.171.124 the soiled litter kit was not in acceptable condition (see paragraph 3.6.4),
4.8.2 you will be charged £8 for redelivery and/or recollection.
5. Price and Payment
5.1 The price of the service will be as quoted on our site and you will be charged the applicable price at the time of delivery, except in cases of obvious errors.
5.2 Service price includes VAT.
5.3 We reserve the right to adjust price, at our sole discretion, at any time;
5.3.1 such changes will not affect orders already sent;
5.3.2 you will be noticed by email of those changes;
5.3.3 your acceptance of deliveries of the service after such notice will constitute your acceptance of the price changes;
5.3.4 otherwise, you will be able to cancel your subscription at any time directly from your user account.
5.4 We accept payment for the service by debit and credit cards (Visa, Mastercard or American Express).
5.5 If payment does not work
5.5.1 an attempt to charge your credit card will be automatically made every 3 days until successful;
5.5.2 if attempts to charge you fail for more than 18 days (i.e. 6 attempts), your subscription will be automatically cancelled.
6. Cancellation rights, Returns and Refunds
6.1 If you are purchasing as a consumer, and you have changed your mind about receiving the service, you have the right to cancel your purchase (incl.subscription) within 14 days of receiving your first cat litter kit/bags without giving any reason under the following conditions:
6.1.1 You notify us that you wish to exercise your right to cancel within 14 days of delivery of your first cat litter kit/bags. You may do this by contacting us using the details set out in paragraph 1). You may use the Model Cancellation Form at the end of these Terms and Conditions but this is not mandatory.
6.1.2 The cat litter kit/bags must be unused, in particular you will lose your right to cancel if the cat litter bag is unsealed due to hygiene reasons.
6.1.3 The goods should be returned within 14 days of you telling us that you have changed your mind. Our customer service team will contact you to arrange collection of your unused cat litter kit/bags. We will arrange this without additional cost to you.
6.1.4 Where the above applies, we will refund you within 14 days of collection of the cat litter kit/bags. Please take reasonable care of the goods in your possession as we may reduce your refund of the price to reflect any reduction in the value of the goods, if this has been caused by your handling them in a way which would not be permitted in a shop. As noted above, the cat litter bag must not be unsealed.
6.2 This cancellation right is separate from any legal rights you may have if there is an issue with the service such as the cat litter kit not being of satisfactory quality.
7. Unsubscribing of subscription
7.1 You may unsubscribe at any time.
7.2 In order for your notice to unsubscribe to be effective from the next subscription, you must do so by Tuesday 6pm the week before the delivery (i.e. 6 days before delivery date, on Monday).
7.3 To end your subscription, you can either
7.3.1 go to your user account.
7.4 When you unsubscribe,
7.4.1 recurring charges will stop
126.96.36.199 immediately for the next delivery if cancellation happens 6 days prior to this (see paragraph 7.2),
188.8.131.52 after the next delivery if not notified 6 days before the next delivery (and you will still receive the next delivery);
7.4.2 you will receive confirmation that your subscription has been ended via email.
8. Termination or Refusal by us
8.1 We reserve the right to refuse or cancel subscription orders at our sole discretion.
8.2 If we do so, you will only be charged for orders that have been shipped to you.
8.2.1 Such orders will include collection.
9. Limitation of liability
9.1 You acknowledge that your use of this site and its content is at your own risk.
9.2 You acknowledge that the litter kit provided by us is intended for cats in good health conditions. It is your responsibility as a cat owner to be aware about your cat's intolerances and ability to use our cat litter.
9.3 We shall not be held liable for any loss or damage that would result in the usage of the product or service under a purpose that is not described in the purposes (see 3.2), functioning and usage of the service (see 3.5).
9.4 Except for liability which we cannot limit, restrict or exclude by law we shall have no liability to you or any third party for any direct, indirect or consequential losses or damages (including loss of profits), or any other damages of any kind whether or not they are foreseeable to both you and us at the point of sale or use of our website.
9.5 Customers should be aware that kits from NatusanTM are heavy, and so extra care should be taken when accepting delivery and unpacking.
9.6 Except as expressly set out in these Terms and Conditions, our liability to you shall not exceed the purchase price of the subscription which is the subject of any dispute between you and us.
9.7 Each of the paragraphs of these Terms and Conditions operates separately. If any relevant authority decides that any of them are unlawful, the remaining paragraphs will remain in full force and effect.
9.8 If we do not insist immediately that you do anything you are required to do under these Terms and Conditions, or if we delay in taking steps against you in respect of your breaking this contract, that will not prevent us from taking steps against you for doing those things at a later date. For example, if you miss a payment and we do not chase you but we continue to provide the products, we can still require you to make the payment later on.
9.8.1 Regarding failures of charges, please refer to paragraph 6.5.
10. Written communications and notices
10.1 When using our site, you accept that communication with us will be mainly electronic. We will contact you by e-mail or provide you with information by posting notices on our website. You agree to this electronic means of communication.
11. Third-party rights
11.1 This contract is between you and us. No other person shall have any rights to enforce any of its terms.
12. Intellectual property
12.1 We are the owner or the licensee of all intellectual property rights in our site and in our product, whether registered or unregistered, and in the material published on it. These works are protected by copyright laws and all such rights are reserved.
12.2 You may print off a copy, and may download extracts, of any pages from our site for your personal reference. You must not use any part of our copyright materials or other intellectual property belonging to us for commercial purposes without first obtaining a license to do so from us and our licensors.
12.3 If you post comments on the products or service to any website, blog or social media network you must ensure that such comments represent your fairly held opinions.
13. Governing law and jurisdiction
13.1 These Terms and Conditions are governed by English law. You and we both agree that the courts of England and Wales will have exclusive jurisdiction.
14. Contests & Prize
14.1.1 These rules apply to all contests, prize draws, promotions, and giveaways that are promoted on and run through our website, our social media channels or our litter waste calculator (each a “contest”).
14.1.2 The promoter is Natusan, part of Mars Petcare UK (company number 06649984 - registered office 3d Dundee Road, Slough, Berkshire, SL1 4LG).
14.1.3 There is no entry fee and no purchase necessary to enter our contests.
14.1.4 Entry into the contest will be deemed as acceptance of these terms and conditions.
14.1.5 The applicable terms and conditions for any contest will be the terms and conditions available on our website at the time of entry into the contest.
14.2 Eligibility and entry restrictions
14.2.1 To be eligible to enter a contest, you must
184.108.40.206 have a delivery address within London,
220.127.116.11 be aged 18 years or over,
18.104.22.168 not be Mars Petcare UK employee and/or anyone involved in the contest.
14.2.2 Only one entry will be accepted per person. Multiple entries from the same person will be disqualified.
14.2.3 Route to entry and rules for the contest and details of how to enter will be explicitly explained for each contest.
14.3 Start and closing date
14.3.1 Opening date for entry will be either
22.214.171.124 on the time and on the date specified on our website and/or social media channels, or
126.96.36.199 on the date on which the contest is first published if nothing is specified.
14.3.2 Similarly, closing for entry will be at the time and on the date specified on our website and social media channels.
14.3.3 Any entries received before the opening or after the closing of the contest will be invalid and will not be entered into the contest.
14.3.4 No responsibility can be accepted for entries not received for whatever reason.
14.4.1 Winners will be selected at random from all eligible entries received and on the basis of any criteria specified on our website and/or social media channels in relation to the contest.
14.4.2 If an entrant does not meet the eligibility requirements, that entrant will not be entitled to be the winner and to win a prize in any circumstances.
14.4.3 Our decision in respect of all matters to do with the contest will be final and no correspondence will be entered into.
14.4.4 The contest and these terms and conditions will be governed by English law and any disputes will be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England.
14.5 Winners and prizes
14.5.1 Prizes for each contest will be specified on our website or social media channels.
14.5.2 Prize winners will be notified of the contest result by email (if address is asked for/provided) or by direct message on social media (winners must therefore ‘like’ or ‘follow’ our social media pages in order to be contacted about prizes) not more than 30 days following the closing date of the contest.
14.5.3 Reasonable efforts will be made to contact the prize winner for 14 days but if the winner fails to respond within this time, to provide an address for delivery of the prize, to meet any of the eligibility requirements or to comply with the contest terms and conditions, we reserve the right to disqualify that entrant and offer the prize to the next eligible entrant and thereafter until a winner is found.
14.5.4 The results of a contest will be announced on our website within 30 days following the closing date of the contest. The announcement may include the name and the town or region of residence and prize details of each prize winner as specified when entering.
14.5.5 No cash alternative to the prizes will be offered. The prizes are not transferable. Prizes are subject to availability and we reserve the right to substitute any prize with another of equivalent value without giving notice.
14.6 Publicity and privacy
14.6.1 The winner agrees that his/her name may be announced on social media. We may ask you to participate in further publicity, as agreed with you. The winner can request for their personal data to be deleted by contacting Natusan at [email address] although the Natusan cannot be held responsible if such request means that it is unable to complete delivery of the winner's prize or assist them following deletion of their personal data.
14.6.2 The winner's details (surname and county only) will be available for a period of 3 months by sending an SAE to Natusan, Mars Petcare UK, Freeby Lane, Melton Mowbray, LE14 4RS.
14.6.3 Our contests on social media are not sponsored, endorsed or administered by, or associated with, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn or any other social network.
15. Gift cards
15.1 From time to time, we may offer gift cards for 1 to 6-month subscriptions for sale on our website.
15.2 The gift cards works as follows:
15.2.1 you purchase the desired length subscription directly on Natusan website and pay at the time of purchase for the full length of the subscription you are buying
15.2.2 you receive a confirmation email with a link to your gift card to be used or shared with the person to who you wish to offer it
15.2.3 you or the recipient may use the gift card by signing up for a subscription and entering the code on our website within a certain amount of time of the purchase date - it will be stated on the gift card
15.2.4 you or the recipient will then receive the Natusan kit for the length of the pre-paid subscription without further payment.
15.3 We will contact the subscriber before the subscription comes to an end to remind the subscriber that the subscription is coming to an end and to give the option to sign up to an ongoing subscription.
15.4 If you are purchasing a gift card as a consumer, and you have changed your mind, you have the right to cancel your gift card within 14 days of ordering it provided that it has not been used. In order to exercise this right you must notify us using the contact details in paragraph 1, within 14 days of ordering your gift card. You may use the Model Cancellation Form at the end of these Terms and Conditions but this is not mandatory.
15.5 Where the above applies, we will de-activate the gift card and refund you within 14 days of you notifying us. As noted above, the gift card must be unused in its entirety.
15.6 Gift cards cannot be sold and/or partly/entirely exchanged for cash.
15.7 They are valid for a single transaction only and cannot be part redeemed.
15.8 We are not responsible if a gift card code is lost or stolen and no replacement will be provided in these circumstances.
16. Free trial
Our free trial offers entitle you to trial the Natusan litter kit service for the stated period. The period commences from the moment you subscribe and submit your payment details. If you decide you do not want to continue paying for a Natusan subscription at the end of your free trial period, you can unsubscribe in accordance with paragraph 7 of our Terms & Conditions. Please note that failure to unsubscribe in advance of your free trial period ending in accordance with the requirements set out in paragraph 7 will result in you being charged for the next delivery. Our free trial offers are limited to one per household.
17. One-off purchases
17.1 One-off Cat Litter bags
17.1.1 The images of the products on our website are for illustrative purposes only and the packaging of the product may vary slightly from that shown in images.
17.1.2 The product delivered will conform with its written description, be of satisfactory quality, and be reasonably fit for the purposes for which it is supplied.
17.1.3 A one-time purchase of Natusan litter bags will comprise:
188.8.131.52 a leaflet explaining the functioning and usage of the product.
184.108.40.206 the amount of biodegradable litter ordered, from 17L to 27L.
17.1.4 Natusan provides a litter
220.127.116.11 made with 100% natural wood fibers;
18.104.22.168 allowing for high absorption;
22.214.171.124 easy to clean, due to tight clumping;
126.96.36.199 safe to use for all indoor and outdoor cats.
188.8.131.52 suitable for all life stages
17.1.5 Concerning potential variations on the product,
184.108.40.206 we reserve the right to make minor changes to the product without notice and at our sole discretion
220.127.116.11 however, if it is necessary to make any major changes to the product, we will inform you first and you will either consent to the changes or choose not to purchase the product anymore.
17.2 Order process for non-subscription products
17.2.1 As well as the subscription services, Natusan may offer its customers one-off products including cat litter and products related to cat litter.
17.2.2 Click on the product description, to see the product details and add to basket. The selected product will be placed in a virtual shopping basket by entering the requested quantity and clicking on the shopping basket icon.
17.2.3 Prices and shipping charges
18.104.22.168 All prices include statutory VAT and exclude shipping costs. We do not sell to businesses, therefore we do not issue VAT receipts, nor do we refund the VAT.
22.214.171.124 Regarding shipping charges,
126.96.36.199.1. The exact cost of delivery is determined by your post code and the total cost of your order. All delivery costs will set out before you purchase the product at checkout.
|Cost of order
||Cost of delivery
188.8.131.52.2. Natusan offers free delivery to UK mainland addresses (see paragraph 17.4.1) on orders from £30, depending on your location and the weight of your parcel(s).
184.108.40.206.3. Orders weighing over 20kg will be dispatched in 2 or more parcels (depending on weight).
17.3 Dispatch and delivery
17.3.1 The delivery for one-off purchases are available to all UK Mainland postcodes i.e. all UK excluding KA27-28, PA20-49, PA60-78, PH17-PH26, PH31-PH41, PH42-PH44, PH49-50, PO30-PO41, TR21-25 and all postcodes that begin with BT, GY, HS, IM, IV, JE, KW, ZE , EX39, PH30 and PO11.
17.3.2 This list of available postcodes within UK will increase gradually and regularly. We encourage you to check the availability in your area from time to time.
17.3.3 Before checkout, we will tell you whether we can deliver to your address.
17.3.4 Unless stated otherwise in the offer or product details, the products will be delivered within 3 to 5 working days of order.
17.3.5 In the event that Natusan is unable to deliver the ordered product because Natusan itself is not supplied by its own suppliers, Natusan may withdraw from the contract. In such a case, Natusan shall inform the customer without delay and propose a comparable product. If a comparable product is not available, or if the customer does not wish to have that product delivered, Natusan shall, without delay, reimburse payments made by the customer.
17.3.6 In the event that supplied products are damaged when they arrive, please contact the Natusan customer care service on email@example.com, as soon as possible to allow, Natusan to lodge a complaint with the carrier or transport insurer regarding the damage. If the customer fails to provide notification of damage within a specified time frame, this shall not have any effect whatsoever on the customer's statutory rights regarding defective products.
for further details regarding how we collect and process your data.
17.3.8 We will also use the contact details you provided to us to contact you in connection with your order.
220.127.116.11 Please ensure they are accurate and kept up to date.
18.104.22.168 The leave safe location specified shall be within the area of the delivery address and shall be accessible for the courier without need to enter or trespass on any private property. We will endeavor to follow any delivery instructions you provide but this cannot be guaranteed.
22.214.171.124 If no leave safe instructions are specified, the order will be left in front of your door.
126.96.36.199 We are not responsible for any damage or loss of the product from the leave safe location specified by you.
17.3.9 No refund will be given for damages or losses that occur after the confirmation of delivery email has been sent.
17.3.10 You may report damaged and / or missing products and non-delivery by emailing us at firstname.lastname@example.org
17.4. Cancellation rights, returns and refunds for one-off deliveries
17.4.1 If you are purchasing a product as a consumer, and you have changed your mind, you have the right to cancel your order within 14 days of receiving your order without giving any reason under the following conditions:
188.8.131.52 You notify us that you wish to exercise your right to cancel within 14 days of delivery of your order. You may do this by contacting us using the details set out in paragraph 1. You may use the Model Cancellation Form at the end of these Terms and Conditions but this is not mandatory.
184.108.40.206 Cat litter must be unused, in particular you will lose your right to cancel if the cat litter bag is unsealed due to hygiene reasons.
220.127.116.11 The goods should be returned within 14 days of you telling us that you have changed your mind. Our customer service team will contact you to advise you where to return the unused cat litter kit/bags.
18.104.22.168 Note that the return costs are fully borne by the customer.
22.214.171.124 Where the above applies, we will refund you (including the cost of delivery to you but not any costs incurred by you returning the product) within 14 days of receipt of the product(s) or if earlier, within 14 days of you providing evidence that you have sent the products back to us. Please take reasonable care of the goods in your possession as we may reduce your refund of the price to reflect any reduction in the value of the goods, if this has been caused by your handling them in a way which would not be permitted in a shop. As noted above, the cat litter bag must not be unsealed.
18. Cost comparisons & Waste claims
18.1 Cost comparisons are based on 17L of Natusan litter vs 34L of non-clumping premium litter over a year
18.2 If you would like more information about our waste claims email email@example.com
These website Terms and Conditions were last updated in June 2020 and take the step on any other existing version.
Annex - Model Cancellation Form
Complete and return this form only if you wish to withdraw from the contract.
[Mars Petcare UK, 3D Dundee Road, Slough, Berkshire, SL1 4LG]
[020 8158 6330]
I/We [*] hereby give notice that I/We [*] cancel my/our [*] contract of sale of the Natusan service,
Ordered on [*]/received on [*],
Name of consumer(s),
Address of consumer(s),
Signature of consumer(s) (only if this form is notified on paper),
[*]Delete as appropriate